Using the ping command to check for domain or IP connection.

how to use the ping command to check for domain or IP connection?

In this article we are going to show you how to use the ping command in order to check for domain or IP connection. We will cover the whole procedure from starting the cmd to reading the output from the ping command. We will use Windows OS in this particular case.

  1. Click on the “Start” button on the bottom left of your screen. When a text box appears, simply type cmd” in it.

    Start menu: cmd ping image

    Start menu: cmd ping image

  2.  Now simply click on the “cmd.exe” that appears on the “Start menu”. There will appear a black window like this one:

    cmd Ping Black Window

    cmd Ping Black Window

  3. For your convenience, you can maximize it to fit your whole screen. Using this “black window” you type and execute commands in your Windows OS. Almost every command in Windows has additional options. In this article we will use the “ping” command so we will demonstrate to you the most common additional options to it. For the following example we will use the command in its basic form to check for connetion with the domain icn.bg:
    Simple ping sample

    Simple ping sample

    You can read the following rows:
    Reply from 91.215.218.14: bytes=1024 time=11ms TTL=59
    Which means:
    There is a reply from 91.215.218.14 (the IP of the icn.bg domain),
    with a data package with size 1024 bytes,
    that took 11ms to be delivered to you.
    The TTL value is the number of hops the packet takes along the path until destination. (don’t bother remembering this).
    If there was no reply from the domain/IP, you would receive this row:
    Request timed out.

    cmd Ping request timed out

    cmd Ping request timed out

  4. You can add additional information to the “ping” output by simply adding the following “extensions” to the command: -n (to specify the number of sent packages) and -l (to specify the size of the package).
    ping with extensions sample

    ping with extensions sample

    After the extension -n we specify the number of the packages that we want to send to the domain/IP (in our case 5).
    After the extension -l we specify the size of the packages in bytes (in this case 1024 bytes that is equal to 1K).
    On the bottom you can see the summarized information. This information show if there is or there is not a connection. It also shows parameters for the quality of the connection:
    0% loss. (which means that all the 5 packages are sent and received respectively).
    Average – 7ms.
    Which means: no lost packages, the average time for package delivery is 7ms (which is good).

    Also you can add the extension -t so the ping will continue until interrupted. It’s very useful when you want to check if your international internet connection is stable.

Now you know how to use the “ping”. Simple, isn’t it ?

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What is php.ini

What is the php.ini file purpose?

In this post we are going to explain to you what is the php.ini file purpose and what do you use it for.

php.ini file is a configuration file which is used to configure different directives in the exectuion of the PHP script. This allows an easy administration of the Apache web servers as well as intalling different application manually or using Softaculous. In the php.ini file are located all applications’ module settings. For example settings like:

  • Memory limit
  • Time for execution of a script
  • Global variables – some applications require an additional directives in the main php.ini file or an additional one in particular directory.
  • Max uploading file size
  • Log error
  • Customized Errors and others.

Locations of the php.ini file.

 

  • SAPI module specific location (PHPIniDir directive in Apache 2, -c command line option in CGI and CLI, php_iniparameter in NSAPI, PHP_INI_PATH environment variable in THTTPD)
  • The PHPRC environment variable. Before PHP 5.2.0, this was checked after the registry key mentioned below.
  • As of PHP 5.2.0, the location of the php.ini file can be set for different versions of PHP. The following registry keys are examined in order: [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x.y.z],[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x.y] and [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP\x], where x, y and z mean the PHP major, minor and release versions. If there is a value for IniFilePath in any of these keys, the first one found will be used as the location of the php.ini (Windows only).
  • [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\PHP], value of IniFilePath (Windows only).
  • Current working directory (except CLI).
  • The web server’s directory (for SAPI modules), or directory of PHP (otherwise in Windows).
  • Windows directory (C:\windows or C:\winnt) (for Windows), or –with-config-file-path compile time option.

Or you can choose to create a script to show the location of the file:

You’ll need to create a very simple php script and place it in your home directory. Using a script editor or a plain text editor (not a word processor) create file called phpinfo.php with this code:

<?php phpinfo(); ?>

That’s all you need. Just one single line. Save the file and name it phpinfo.php.

Upload this file to the public_html directory or whatever your main HTML directory is called.

In your browser address bar, access the file by typing in: http://yourdomain.com/phpinfo.php

You’ll get a complete list of all your php settings. In the phpinfo.php page you can see:

php.ini location

php.ini location

  • the PHP version at the top of the file.
  • the location of your php.ini file

If you scroll down the page, and you can find the current version of MySQL. and php settings like safe_mode and register_globals and much much more.

Execution of the php.ini file.

During the execution of a PHP script, the web server first looks for a php.ini file in order to execute the particular configuration for the application. It’s like setting up the application with its parameters. For the server module versions of PHP, this happens only once when the web server is started. For the CGI and CLI versions, it happens on every invocation.

The php.ini file is mainly configured by the server administrator for optimal settings. Every webserver has one default php.ini file which is global for every user on the server. This global php.ini file is load on every script’s execution. If there are any changes in the php.ini file, the webvserver must be restarted so the changes will take effect. So, if a user requires specific configuration, the best way is to create a separate php.ini file. The separate php.ini file is only effective for the directory and subdirectories of its location.

The best way is to make a php.ini file backup copy before you make any changes to it.

Now you know how to use php.ini file. Simple isn’t it?

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Check for open ports: how to do this?

How can I check for open ports?

In this post we are going to explain to you, how can you check for open ports.

What does it mean “check for open ports”? It simply means that a TCP or UDP port is configured to receive data packages. The opposite – when a port declines data packages, it means that this port is closed.

You can check for open ports either on your own computer or on remote one. The main reason to check for open ports is when you are not able to connect to a particular server with particular service.

For example: you are not able to connect to your mail server, so you can’t send mails.

There are a lot of programs, which could check for open ports. There are even online ones. All you need to do, is to write in Google “check for open ports” or “port scanner”.

But here in this post we are going to explain how you could check for open ports by yourself, without any additional software. This could be done using telnet client which is already installed on your Windows.

How to check for open ports in Windows?

 

Important: If you are using Windows XP your telnet is already installed, but if you are using Windows Vista, 7, 8 or 10 you should start it manually, using the following steps:

go to Start menu -> Control Panel -> Programs and Features -> Turn Windows features on or off -> Mark Telnet Client -> press OK.

In order to start telnet, press Windows button + R and then write down cmd. This command will open your Command Prompt (a black window). Now, if you want to check for open ports like port 25 for example, write down the following command:

telnet <your IP> <port number>
Example: telnet 77.70.55.121 25

 

 

Now, after you’ve wrote down the command, press Enter. The telnet client has two types of respond:

1. Connecting To77.70.55.121…Could not open connection to the host, on port 25:Connect failed
This means that port 25 on address77.70.55.121 is closed.

Check for open ports: closed port

Check for open ports: closed port

If the port of the IP address is open, there should be an instant connection.
If the port of the IP address e configured not to respond when someone tries to connects through it, there will be a pitch black screen (Command Prompt) or, if configured with a message, there will be a message like this:

Check for open ports: not responding port

Check for open ports: not responding port

Important: some ports might be closed by your Antivirus software, Firewall or Router.

Now you know how to check for an open port. Simple, isn’t it?

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What is robots.txt file used for?

What is robots.txt file used for?

In this post we are going to explain you what is robots.txt file used for? We will explain the purpose of the robots.txt file as well as some examples of its content.

what is robots.txt - image

what is robots.txt – image

When you have a website, you should make a good SEO. One way to do this is to make “instructions” to all the bots and spiders that crawl your website. The instructions could be:

  • How often the bots, spiders and crawlers should crawl your website.
  • Which parts of your website should be crawled.
  • Which parts of your website shouldn’t be crawled.

In order to give these instructions, you need to create a robots.txt file in your website’s main directory. For example: if your website is MyWebsite.com the file must be located in:

http://MyWebsite.com/robots.txt

You can create this file simply by using a text editor as Notepad, or using your cPanel file manager.

Robots.txt contains instruction in specific format, which is strictly followed by the crawlers. If robots.txt does not exist, the crawlers decide that the owner of the website doesn’t want them to follow any particular instructions, so they will crawl all your website – all the pages, sub pages, posts, links, images and so on.

 

Robots.txt can give specific instructions to the web crawlers like which pages to be crawled and which ones not.

In case your website contains an information which you don’t want to be shown in Search Engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo etc., you can “hide” this information using the robots.txt file.

It doesn’t matter how many websites you have on your web hosting, any of the websites has its own robots.txt file.

 

Which are the most often used instructions in the robots.txt file?

You can control the robots, spiders and crawlers that crawl your website, simply through entering the following commands into your robots.txt file:

With this instruction you tell the crawlers that you want them to fully crawl your website and every of its web pages:

 

User-agent: *

Disallow:

 

With the following code you can hide specific directories from the web crawlers:

 

User-agent: *

Disallow: /cgi-bin/

Disallow: /tmp/

Disallow: /junk/

 

The next command tells the crawlers to stay away from a specific file:

 

 

User-agent:*

Disallow: /directory/file.html

 

Also you can block specific robos, spiders or crawlers from crawling your website:

 

 

User-agent:

 BadBot # replace ‘BadBot’ with the actual user-agent of the bot

Disallow: /

 

here, you should change the ‘BadBot’ with the name of the crawler that you wish to block from crawling your website.

 

Use the following command to hide a specific folder from specific crawler:

User-agent:

 BadBot # replace ‘BadBot’ with the actual user-agent of the bot

Disallow: /private/

 

With this command you can block the access of any crawler to your website:

 

 

User-agent: *

Disallow: /

 

This way you can be sure that the crawlers will not generate any traffic to your website.

 

You can also use the .htaccess file to block the crawlers from crawling your website. In order to block the crawlers to crawl your website, you should put the following code into your .htaccess file:

 

 

BrowserMatchNoCase \*bot bad_bot 
BrowserMatchNoCase bot\* bad_bot 
Order Deny,Allow 
Deny from env=bad_bot 

RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^-?$ 
RewriteRule ^ – [F]

 

Of course, you need to change the bad_bot with the name of the specific bot you would like to block from crawling your website.

For example, if you want to block the Google bot from crawling your website, the .htaccess code should be like this:

 

 

BrowserMatchNoCase \*bot Googlebot 
BrowserMatchNoCase bot\* Googlebot 
Order Deny,Allow 
Deny from env=Googlebot 

RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^-?$ 
RewriteRule ^ – [F]

 

 

How to hide directories using robots.txt?

As an example we will use a website made on Joomla CMS. If you want to hide specific directories from the crawlers, you can use the following code into your robots.txt file:

 

User-agent: * 
Disallow: /administrator/ 
Disallow: /cache/ 
Disallow: /components/ 
Disallow: /images/ 
Disallow: /includes/ 
Disallow: /installation/ 
Disallow: /language/ 
Disallow: /libraries/ 
Disallow: /media/ 
Disallow: /modules/ 
Disallow: /plugins/ 
Disallow: /templates/ 
Disallow: /tmp/ 
Disallow: /xmlrpc/

 

For example if we want to block the crawlers’ access to a folder with name “content”, we simply add the following row to our robots.txt file:

 

Disallow: /content/

 

Using web crawlers makes your website more “popular” in Search Engines like Google. It’s a very good start for your website’s SEO and advertisement, without investing any money.

*Just take in mind that any changes in the crawling configuration might affect your website in a negative way. Because of this particular reason, we advise you not to change any code if you are not sure in what you are doing.

Now you know what is robots.txt file and how to configure it. Simple, isn’t it?

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How to change the PHP version of your hosting plan?

How to change the PHP version of your hosting plan?

In this post we are going to explain you how to change the PHP version of your hosting plan. Though there are multiple ways to do this, we are going to show you the easiest and the most handy one – using the .htaccess file.

Using the .htaccess file to the change the PHP version of your hosting plan comes in handy. It is mainly because using this method allows the user to change the PHP version for just one directory and its’ allocated subdirectories. In other words, you can specify a particular PHP version for a particular domain, subdomain, CMS or other platform or software.

Step 1 – check your current PHP version:

In order to do this, first you need to make a file called “phpinfo.php” (you can do this using Notepad or the file manager in your cPanel) and put inside the file the following rows:

<?php
phpinfo();
?>

then save and close the file. Now upload this file into the directory you would like to check for its PHP version. Then access this file from your browser. For example, if your website is situated in the “Public_html” directory and your phpinfo.php file is there, you can access it by typing in your browser:

YourDomain/phpinfo.php

You will see a webpage showing your current PHP version as well as an additional information about the configuration of your PHP script. The webpage should look like this:

how to change the PHP version - image.

how to change the PHP version – image.

In order to change the PHP version, you should add one of the following rows into your “.htaccess” file.:

For PHP version 4: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php4 .php
For PHP version 5: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php5 .php .php5 .php4 .php3
For PHP version 5.1: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php51 .php .php5 .php4 .php3
For PHP version 5.2: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php52 .php
For PHP version 5.2(Suhosin patch): AddHandler application/x-httpd-php52s .php .php5 .php4 .php3
For PHP version 5.3: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php53 .php
For PHP version 5.4: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php54 .php
For PHP version 5.5: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php55 .php
For PHP version 5.6: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php56 .php .php5 .php4 .php3
For PHP version 7.0: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php70 .php .php5 .php4 .php3
For PHP version 7.1: AddHandler application/x-httpd-php71 .php .php5 .php4 .php3

We remind you that the “.htaccess” file is a system file which affects the current directory and its’ subdirectories.

Now you know how to change the PHP version of your directories. Simple, isn’t it?

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What is .htaccess file?

What is .htaccess file ?

Have you ever wondered what is .htaccess file and what do you use it for? In this post we are going to explain what is .htaccess file and what do you is it for.

.htaccess image

what is htaccess file – image

The name of the .htaccess file comes from Hypertext Access. This is a config file that works on directory level. This means that .htaccess file could change part of the global server configuration, located in php.ini. Take in mind that the .htaccess file changes the configuration only in its’ location directory and subdirectories respectively. The main purpose of the .htaccess file is to define who and what will have an internet access to the content of a particular folder. .htaccess file is used in Apache based webservers. .htaccess file is mainly used in the following situations:

  • Authorisation and authentication.
  • URL redirect.
  • Deny/Allow user access by IP.
  • Password protection for directories.
  • Deny of particular directory listing.
  • Hotlink protection.
  • Default page setup.
  • Server time zone configuration.
  • Create and assign your own error pages.
  • MIME types.
  • Cache Control.
  • PHP version change.

Unlike php.ini, the changes in the .htaccess file become active immediately after the change. This is due to the .htaccess file is read with every request to the domain, thus it is not needed to restart the application. The drawback of this “nature” is that the performance is little bit slower, because for every received request, the request itself looks for another .htaccess file in the subdirectories.

The .htaccess file could be easily created using a simple text editor as Notepad or the file manager in cPanel. The file name could and must be only .htaccess. The file can not contain any other strings, names, symbols or extensions. For example it would not work if it’s called: htaccess.txt, my.htaccess, sample.htaccess and so on.

Now you know what is a .htaccess file and what you could use it for. Simple, isn’t it?

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What is an IDN Domain?

What is an IDN Domain?

In this post we are going to explain what is an IDN Domain.

what is an idn domain name

image of what is an idn domain name

IDN is an abbreviation of internationalized Domain Names. This type of domains allows to the user to register a domain name using specific symbols. These specific symbols could be different from the Latin Alphabet. For example, a user registering an IDN domain could use Slavian Alphabet, Chinese, Arabian or any different symbols (e.g.: лтсдемо.ею).

The standard Domain Name managing system (Domain Name System) which translates the domain names into IP addresses to localize certain internet resources is limited in using only ASCII signs and latin symbols. IDN is a technological solution, which offers the opportunity to translate the domain names to random “language” (such as your native). What’s more, IDN makes these domain names fully compatible with the Standard Domain Name System. IDN is using Punycode transcription, which translates the IDN domains into Latin symbols. The process is as follows: every single symbol starts with “xn--“. The encryption takes place during the process of communication between the user browser and the Domain System.

Here is an example of IDN domains: моятаигричка.com, юженпоток.бг, сиренце.ею.

In order to get access to a website with IDN domain name, the user also needs a specific software and OS (Operating System, eg.: Windows, Linux, MacOS) settings which allow using the specific language symbols.

That’s it. Now you know what is an IDN  domain name.

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How to use Google Translate as a proxy server?

How to use Google Translate as a proxy server?

In this post we will show you how to use Google Translate as a proxy server. We will also explain what a Proxy Server is and how you could use it.

What is a Proxy server?

The proxy server stands like a mediator between your computer and the internet.

proxy-server-image

proxy-server-image

A user can use a proxy server for the following reasons:

  • Anonymous access to certain service, file, web page or some other resource on the internet.
  • accelerates the access to certain resources through caching.
  • Managing of DNS requests.
  • Filters the access to certain websites.
  • Monitoring and analysis of the bandwidth and traffic.
  • Breaking through security and regional limitations.
  • Verification of the data before it’s sent to the user.
  • Scan of outgoing data and others.

The proxy server could be a computer or software application. All of your computer’s requests are directed through the server, so it could process them according to its purpose (translating in this particular case). There are different types of proxy servers:

  • Gateway proxy – all the requests and responds pass without any changes.
  • Forward proxy – redirects the connection to particular internet resource.
  • Reverse proxy – it doesn’t offer information about the last/first server. The respond is given as from the proxy server itself.

How to use Google Translate as a Proxy Server?

Google Translate could be used as a proxy server in order to receive access to your website. The request in this case is passed through the Google’s sever. To use Google Translate as a proxy server, first you need to open the Google Translate’s webpage: https://translate.google.bg/. Then you need to write down your website’s link as like you are going to translate it and choose a language.

using google translate as a proxy server

use google translate as a proxy server

After you press the “Translate” button the content of your link will be loaded as if it’s requested from Google’s IP.

 

 

using google translate as a proxy server

use google translate as a proxy server

That’s it. Simple isn’t it? Now you have access to your own website through a Google Translate proxy server. Congratulations!

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